testes are two male sex glands located outside the pelvis into the scrotum. They are fixed to the scrotum by the
spermatic cord, the structure of the male genitalia containing the vas deferens, some lymph nodes, veins and
nerves. Each adult testis measures approximately 14 cm³ - 35 cm³ with a weight of about 18 g. The two main roles
of the testicles are to produce sperm, which then pass through the vas deferens to reach the prostate in which
it mixes with seminal fluid to form semen; and synthesize male hormones including testosterone.
All these features are
possible thanks to thousands of cells working in synergy. Every day, thousands of testicular cells die
(self-cell destruction or apoptosis) to be replaced by new healthy cells. Testicular cancer occurs when there is
abnormal and anomic cell proliferation in the testes. The testes become assailed by cells which multiply
exaggeratedly without committing suicide.
The cause of this cellular
disorder is not well known; risk factors, however, are suspected.
Testicular Cancer Risk Factors