Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare
cancer of the blood and bone marrow which
represents 15 to 20% of adult
leukemia. Although CML can occur
at any age, it tends to affect adults between 30 and 50 years, but mainly adults
aged over 55 years, with a slight male predominance.
Chronic myeloid leukemia is favored by
exposure to benzene and ionizing radiation.
This is the rarest type of leukemia, coming right before hairy
cell leukemia, in order of frequency: Chronic
Lymphocytic Leukemia> Acute Leukemia>
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia> Hairy Cell Leukemia.
The bone marrow is located inside of
bones. It is the seat of manufacturing of all
blood cells, which occurs from
stem cells called "hematopoietic". The hematopoieticstem cells (HSCs)of the
bone marrow are the source of all
• Red blood cells (erythrocytes), which
carry oxygen to all organs and tissues;
• White blood cells (leukocytes), which
fight against infections;
• The platelets that help
the blood to clot in order to stop persistent bleeding
when a blood vessel is injured.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Statistics
myeloid leukemia is not on common cancer in the US. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), it is estimated that
the number of people affected with CML in 2014 was as follow:
About 5,980 new cases diagnosed : 3,130 men
and 2,850 women
About 810 people died of it: 550 men and 260
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes
myeloid leukemia causes
are not well known to science. But it is believed that the disease is due to
the appearance of a chromosomal abnormality of the bone marrow stem cells:
chromosome (also known asPhiladelphia translocation), which
for the city Philadelphia
States) where the researchers PeterC.
Nowelland Hungerford D.A.
discovered it in the 60s.
scientists believe that this anomaly results from the
reciprocal translocation (exchange) between chromosomes 9 and 22. This exchange is contacted two normally
distinct genes: BCR gene and ABL
gene, which will form an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL fusion.
This is the occurrence of this
chromosomal abnormality that leads to the development of chronic
myeloid leukemia (CML). But until today, little is known
about the causes of the appearance of the
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
As mentioned above,
chronic myeloid leukemia is more common in males than
in females. It occurs mostly in the elderly with a median
age of 64 years at
diagnosis. Based on a study conducted
on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear bombing survivors, It is
also found that exposure to Ionizing radiation such as Heat waves, Radiowaves, Infrared light, Ultraviolet
light, X rays, and Gamma rays, increases the risk for an individual to develop the
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia